It has been recently proposed that cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists represent a new class of therapeutic agents for drug dependence, and notably, nicotine dependence. In experimental animals, SR141716 and AM251 (two cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists) block nicotine self-administration behavior, an effect that may be related to the blockade of the dopamine-releasing effects of nicotine in the brain. It seems that rimonabant is an efficacious treatment for smoking cessation, although its efficacy does not exceed that of nicotine-replacement therapy and its use may be limited by emotional side effects (nausea, anxiety and depression, mostly). SR141716 also appears to decrease relapse rates in smokers. These findings indicate significant, but limited, utility of rimonabant for smoking cessation.