Tag: genetics (page 1 of 8)

The Horse Named Cannabis: Building a Database to Focus on Breeding and Lineage

Thoroughbred horse racing is a major industry that rests on generations of selective breeding. The horse racing industry does a wonderful job of keeping records of each horse’s lineage.


In an article published this past March, writer Cory Wray discusses the similarities between Thoroughbred horse racing and cannabis breeding. Wray does a wonderful job of equating the two industries by focusing on a filly named Cannabis.


Wray is clearly passionate about Thoroughbred horse racing, along with the desire to navigate the genealogies of the thousands of cannabis strains available today:

“Imagine if you could type a strain name into a database (horse racing has brisnet.com) and you could see the strains breeding and pedigree. In horse racing, you know the horse’s entire lineage, the breeder, the trainer, the jockey, everything.”

-Cory Wray, from “And They’re Off… Similarities of Cannabis Competitions and Thoroughbred Horse Racing” (Feature Image Above)

Luckily for Wray, Cannabis Reports does in fact have a database that allows people to search for the complete genetics of a particular strain. And, precisely as Wray imagines, it is important to communicate all of the factors that went into that strain.


Cannabis seed companies stabilize cannabis genetics and distribute them, which is similar to how horse breeders collect stud fees.


Cannabis is grown by many different people in a variety of environments, and each cultivator is going to end up with something different. Like a trainer may specialize in improving a horse’s capabilities on turf or dirt tracks, growers also have different specialties.

The jockey in this analogy actually ends up being the consumer. Whether they are a patient or an enthusiast, or both, everyone has unique experiences and responses with cannabis. The human interaction in this case is a factor that is difficult to track, but certainly not impossible.

Cannabis: Where Animal Meets Plant

Let’s take a look at the Thoroughbred filly named Cannabis and a cannabis strain called Jack Frost.


Above is the lineage of the horse named Cannabis. The pink boxes represent females, the blue boxes represent males, and as you can see, the lineage can be traced back five generations to Book Law in 1924.

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These two visuals (screenshots from the Cannabis Reports database) represent the many generations of specific cannabis strains that went into the creation of Jack Frost. On the left is a color data visual which represents the same information available from the traditional family tree on the right.

Geographic Origins of Jack Frost

Geographic Origins of Jack Frost

Cannabis Reports has additionally linked each of these strains with the breeders and seed companies who originally created them.


Jack Frost by GoldenSeed

Jack Frost, created by the seed company GoldenSeed, is a genetic recombination of the strains Jack Herer (bred by Sensi Seeds), White Widow (bred by Green House Seed Co.), and Northern Lights #5 (bred by Sensi Seeds).

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Here is a side-by-side comparison of the three primary strains that make up Jack Frost by GoldenSeed.

As you can see, the genetics are mapped all the way back to the original landraces, which in the case of Jack Frost includes Afghani, Thai, Colombian, Acapulco Gold, Mexican, South Indian, and Brazilian.

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All of the lineage information for cannabis is awesome, and Cannabis Reports has made it applicable for anyone. Above is an example of a Cannabis Reports user’s personal genetic recommendation engine.

The first column of numbers is the amount of times this user has reviewed a strain that contains those landraces.

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The numbers to the right of that first column represent this user’s aggregate ratings of the flavors and effects that they personally experienced when they interacted with these genetics.


Because everyone has a unique endocannabinoid system, it is necessary that the recommendation engine remains personal, and does not calculate reviews from other individuals.

Ultimately, the personal recommendation engine will be tied in with our database of clinical studies examining the medical efficacy of cannabis. There are nearly 600 studies all organized by the conditions that these studies were aiming to treat.

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The Cannabis Reports Medical Studies Database

Cory Wray’s article presents an apt comparison between the Thoroughbred industry and the cannabis cultivation industry.

Horse racing has been keeping lineage records for many years, and the relative newness of cannabis hybridization gives technology the opportunity to keep pace with the thousands of strains now available throughout the world.

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Register for a Cannabis Reports account to start building your personal genetic profile. Signing up for a Cannabis Reports account is completely free, and there are no advertisements or trackers monitoring users anywhere within our platform.

For the most up to date info on Cannabis Reports, follow us on Twitter, and like us on our Facebook page.

The Ultimate Cannabis Reading List: 8 Books for a Solid Cannabis Education

Quality information is helping to drive the cannabis movement forward. However, cannabis literature is often overlooked due to the massive amounts of articles and resources online. This needs to change, because some of the most useful information available to the cannabis community and industry is ink printed on paper.


The following eight books cover a broad spectrum of the literature that is available today. The authors are some of the most renowned and respected individuals in the cannabis space, and their expertise can help everyone better understand cannabis culture, history, and science.

The Big Book of Buds by Ed Rosenthal (Series)

One of the most well-known cannabis books series is Ed Rosenthal’s The Big Book of Buds (2001). There are currently four volumes with additional manuscripts being prepared for publication as you read this article.


The Big Book of Buds is an incredible look at the diversity of cannabis varietals, including growing characteristics and insights into the general chemotypical qualities one can expect from their cannabis strains.


Rosenthal is a cannabis pioneer and has served as a cultivator, an author, and an activist for several decades. He is currently an extremely popular speaker and presenter at cannabis industry events across the country.

The Cannabible by Jason King (Series)

The Cannabible (2001) is another series of books that showers the cannabis plant with love. The author, Jason King, was disappointed by the lack of cannabis varieties being presented to the mainstream enthusiast. The Cannabible series contains three volumes, all packed with photos of strains and their parent genetics.


An interesting note is that both The Big Book of Buds and The Cannabible have evolved as better cannabis information was made available to the public. While many readers have pointed out discrepancies in the earlier volumes of both series, the information has been the backbone of cannabis genetics since the early 2000s.

Marijuana Horticulture by Jorge Cervantes

Jorge Cervantes, author of Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor/Outdoor Medical Grower’s Bible, is an incredibly respected cannabis expert. Cervantes has traveled around the world, learning about cannabis strains firsthand from diverse groups of people, and has since recombined all of the techniques to master the art of cannabis cultivation.


Cervantes has long been a staple in the cannabis competition community as well, and his explanations of evaluating cannabis have been viewed across the web hundreds of thousands of times. Marijuana Horticulture covers everything from grow room setups to fertilizer use, disease and pest prevention as well as hash making.

The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer

Jack Herer is probably one of the most famous figures from the early days of cannabis. Sensi Seeds has even dedicated a strain to his prolific work for cannabis.


Herer first published The Emperor Wears No Clothes: Hemp and the Marijuana Conspiracy in 1985, and over ten editions have been re-released since that time.

Jack Herer with His Favorite Plant

Jack Herer with His Favorite Plant

The book is one of the oldest and most quoted manuscripts associated with modern cannabis in America. Herer does a fantastic job of documenting the historical uses of cannabis and how they have shaped our evolving society.

Thai Stick by Peter Maguire and Mike Ritter

Peter Maguire and Mike Ritter are certainly qualified to write about the international cannabis trade in the 1970s; they lived it. Thai Stick: Surfers, Scammers, and the Untold Story of the Marijuana Trade is the thrilling and often hilarious account of their adventures traversing the cannabis economies from Bangkok to the Hindu Kush mountains.


Thai Stick does a wonderful job of entertaining readers while simultaneously providing an in-depth look at how landrace strains found their way to California. Genetic strains from places like Thailand, Colombia, and Afghanistan have shaped the thousands of modern cannabis strains available today.

The Cannabis Health Index by Uwe Blesching, PhD

The Cannabis Health Index by Uwe Blesching, PhD, is one of the most comprehensive reviews of clinical cannabis studies available anywhere. Blesching is currently a contributing PhD author for Cannabis Reports, and has amassed hundreds of additional studies for the medical database on our site (which is currently listing 590 studies for 135 conditions between 1971 and 2016).


Blesching reviews each study as it relates to a particular condition, disease or symptom. Individually, studies are assigned a CHI value that averages the type of study with the key findings to produce a user-friendly reference for the value of evidence provided by the study.

Blesching also includes valuable information that addresses healing beyond just cannabis. Mind-body medicine, holistic attitudes, and nutritional examinations of spices are also included.


As Blesching loves to say: “Cannabis is not a silver bullet. In order to heal, you need to consciously address all of the things that may have contributed to your getting sick in the first place.”

Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany by Robert C. Clarke and Mark Merlin


Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany sets a true baseline for cannabis education. Robert C. Clarke and Mark D. Merlin address many of the discrepancies that plague cannabis information today, including but not limited to:

  • Historical Uses of Cannabis
  • The Migration of Cannabis
  • The Cannabis Origin Story
  • Early Cultivation and Selective Breeding
  • Cultural Diffusions of Cannabis
  • Ethnobotanical History and Modern Context
  • Modern Cultivation and Hybridization
  • The Classical and Molecular Taxonomy of Cannabis
  • The Overall Impact of Cannabis and Humanity

Clarke and Merlin back up each of their statements with authoritative references in what is one of the first complete accounts of where cannabis came from and how it got to where it is today.

Handbook of Cannabis, Edited by Roger Pertwee

Handbook of Cannabis is a very serious scientific text. Along with contributing authors Ethan Russo, Marnie Duncan, and Wayne Hall, editor Roger Pertwee addresses cannabinoid science and applications in pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and beyond.


This handbook (read: textbook) is a phenomenal reference guide for any individual or organization that wants to back up their reasons for participating in the cannabis industry. It is certainly not an easy read, but the information combining therapeutic targets and sought-after effects is worth the time for anyone devoted to medical cannabis.

More Cannabis Literature Available

These eight texts provide cultivators, doctors, educators, and enthusiasts with valuable cannabis information, but they are certainly not the only examples. If you would like some guidance exploring a specific type of cannabis genre, be it cultivation techniques, legal history, or endocannabinoid science, the Cannabis Reports team is happy to help.


For the most up to date info on Cannabis Reports, follow us on Twitter, and like us on our Facebook page.

Cannabis Genetics Like You Have Never Seen Them Before: Visualizing the Cannabis Reports Strain Database

Data is incredibly powerful. It can help researchers unravel scientific mysteries, it can drive major business decisions, and it can be art.

“Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.” Sure, that definition does not scream the words “beautiful” or “stimulating” to the majority of people, but you might change your mind when you see what happens when you can mix cannabis genetics with a data visualization tool (D3.js).

Check out the video and take a moment to appreciate the exploratorium that is the Cannabis Reports database. What you are about to see is the visual navigation of over 80,000 genetic cross-references between the strains in our database. In this short clip, we navigate through the hundreds of modern strains that have been created using the breeder DJ Short’s popular strain Blueberry.

View post on imgur.com

As you can see, DJ Short’s Blueberry is extensively embedded in the genetics of an incredible number of other strains. This type of data visualization reveals that entire seed companies have been built on particular strains. At the time this was written, Cannabis Reports just added the 8,618th strain to the database. All of those strains are linked back through the genetic family tree, all the way back to the original landraces.


The Tree Layout Displays Node-Link Diagrams using the Reinhold-Tilford “Tidy” Algorithm. Tree Models are Often Used to Show Parent and Children Relationships.

So what you are seeing is actually a family tree linking over five different eras of modern cannabis genetics! By the way, all of this data (actually much more cannabis data) is freely available for developers and researchers through our open cannabis API.

The Parents of DJ Short's Blueberry Strain

The Parents of DJ Short’s Blueberry Strain

The majority of the models displayed in this post are known as “adjacency diagrams.” This data model (GitHub: Partition Layout) produces adjacent nodes and identifies the proximity requirements between major groups. Essentially, these models display the size of each node by determining the dimensional requirements necessary to fill space within the model.

Below, we have shown the genetic origins of the strain Jack Herer (created by Sensi Seeds), as well as a geographical map indicating these origins.

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Cannabis Data Can Help the Industry Grow

Falling in love with data is not everyone’s destiny, but if it were to happen, it generally requires your exposure to a dataset that reveals meaningful trends in your personal life. In 2008, David Drake began building a database specifically for people who love cannabis and love to discuss cannabis genetics.

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Eight years later, Cannabis Reports now hosts specific information on over 30,000 combined strains, edibles, extracts, other infused products, and all of the businesses that create them.

Personal Genetic Profile Visualized Using D3.js

Personal Genetic Profile Visualized Using D3.js

The data is all normalized, exposing all of the interwoven connections between genetic breeding, the cultivators and infused product makers, and at the very end, patient consumption.

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Cannabis Reports can show you awesome data visualization because our database is built on cannabis landrace genetics rather than retail language like “indica, sativa, and hybrid.”

Visualization of the Children from Girl Scout Cookies

Above: Visualization of the Children from Girl Scout Cookies. Below: Visualization of the parents of Girl Scout Cookies.

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The Genetic Origins of Blue Dream, Still One of the Most Popular and Widely Available Strains Today

The Genetic Origins of Blue Dream, Still One of the Most Popular and Widely Available Strains Today


Gelato #45: A Strain with a More Complex Parental Lineage


Feel free to reach out to the Cannabis Reports team with any questions you may have about our database, the thousands of genetic-cross references we have documented, or just cannabis technology in general. We would love to hear from you!

For the most up to date info on Cannabis Reports, follow us on Twitter, and like us on our Facebook page.

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